Sentences are made of small packages of words that are able to express a complete sense of thoughts. Sentences make easy to understand the others ideas and help to learn information. Without using sentences, we cannot express our thoughts, emptions, feelings, ideas or general speeches as well.
Now we are going to learn about the types of sentences according to their structure. Before this, we have to know the structure of sentence.
What is Sentence Structure?
Every meaningful thing has its own structure. You know what, there is nothing in this world which don’t have a basic structure.
Like – buildings have their own structure chair, table, furniture all have their structures. Foods, chemicals, we writing with pen on paper or board, all have structures. Our talks, sentences also have structures. Structure means formation of something. A simple declarative sentence basically have the following structure. i.e –
Sub + verb + object.
Ex – (a). I read a book.
(b) People visit learnitech website.
It is a very simple structured sentence that express only a general idea. If you want to express something negative, then your sentence structure will be:
Sub + Auxiliary Verb + not + main verb + object.
Ex – I do not read a book.
Here, we should learn about clause to get broad knowledge about sentence structure. We cannot understand the structure of sentence without knowing clause.
What is Clause?
A clause is a unit of some words that consists of a subject of a word. A clause is different from a phrase. Phrase do not contain subject plus verb. For example –
In the morning, at the night, to your home, at the college, before sleep etc.
Types of clause:
There are basically two major types of clause. i.e.
- Main or independent or principal clause.
- Subordinate or dependent clause.
Example: He is buying a pant which is nice.
Here the first part “He is buying a pant” is Independent clause. And the other part “which is nice” is dependent clause.
Independent clause can be a complete sentence alone. On the other hand, dependent clause cannot be a complete sentence.
We can identify phrases by some excellent tricks.
See ‘I saw a bird.’
Here ‘I’ subject, ‘saw’ finite verb or main verb, and ‘a bird’ is object.
Now, ‘I saw a bird having red feathers’. Look here, the object is extended to ‘a bird having red feathers’. This object says as only one element or noun and they have no main verb or finite verb. So these group of words are unable to make a complete sentence. This type of word groups are called phrase.
In other words, a phrase can be defined as a group of words that have no subject and no finite verb and acts as a small element of any sentence.
Example- ‘I like to take exercise in the morning’. The underlined part is a phrase.
Now it’s time to learn the structure of sentence. According to structure, sentences are of three types.
- Simple sentence
- Complex sentence
- Compound sentence
Simple sentence is consist of only one main or independent clause.
Example: I saw the picture.
Here this sentence is consist of a subject (I), a main verb (saw) and an object (the picture) and it expresses a definite and complete idea or thought.
Structural pattern: Subject +finite verb +object + complement.
A simple sentence does not contain any dependent clauses or any conjunction between two independent clauses. It doesn’t have more than one main or independent clauses.
|Simple Sentence||Not Simple Sentence|
|Tina works well.||Tina works well and confidently.|
|Dipu likes football.||Although Dipu likes football, he hates cricket.|
But remember a simple sentence may have a subject which contains conjunction.
Example: Ruma and Suma are the best friends. And underlined “Ruma and Suma” is a subject, not a clause.
A complex sentence consists of one or more main or independent clause and one or more dependent clause.
For example – ‘If you work hard, you will prosper in life’.
Here, ‘If you work hard’ is a dependent or subordinate clause. And ‘you will prosper in life’ is main clause.
In a complex sentence, dependent or subordinate clause always begins with some conjunctions. These are – who, where, when, which, while, how, whether, if, that, because, since, as, though, although, till, until, unless, before, after, so that, so……that, whatever, wherever, whoever, whenever etc.
- Though he is poor, he is honest.
- We eat so that we may live.
- I do not know where he lives in.
- I will wait for you till night.
- I cannot go out since it has been raining for two hours.
A compound sentence is a type of sentence which has more than one independent or main or principal clause connected by one or more coordinate conjunctions.
Conjunctions generally use in compound sentence are – and, but, or, both….and, not only…..but also, for, also, yet, not yet, no less than, thus, so, else, still, therefore, otherwise, either…..or, neither…..nor, as well as, accordingly, moreover, nevertheless, on the contrary, while, whereas, however, while, only, consequently etc.
Examples are –
- Not only Toma but also Ruma went there.
- You must do it or you will be fired.
- The teacher taught me that do not tell a lie.
- She assured me that she will come.
- Either Rafi or Kafi will do the work.