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How to Learn English

What is the English Grammar?

English grammar is said to be the way by which meanings are encoded into words in the English language. The contents are discussed in grammar are words, clauses, sentences, and phrases up to the structure of the texts. There are different variations of English like social, regional, cultural and historical.

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Basic components of English grammar:

Word

Sentence

Tense

Parts of speech – Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection.

Clause

Article

Degree

Person

Number

Gender

Word:

‘Word’ consists of one or more speaking sound of human or written representation of the sounds, and have a definite meaning. These are the smallest formed elements of a sentence. These are also called the basic unit of a language.

Example – ‘bird’ is a word. It has a definite meaning.

But ‘dirb’ has no meaning. So we cannot say it is a word.

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Sentence:

A sentence is made of a group of words that express a complete sense. It contains a main verb and always begins with a capital letter. Sentences are commonly used to:

  • Make a statement like – I have bought a new dress.
  • Ask a question or request like – Can I help you? Or, Could you open the door, please?
  • Give command like – Come here at once!
  • Express exclamation like – It’s so cold! It’s too charming!

Which one is not a Sentence?

The group of words which do not express a complete sense or meaning or not valid is not a sentence. Some examples are – work for, too much information, all not Monday etc.

These are not able to complete a sense of expression and have no actual meaning. So we cannot say them sentences.

Types of sentences:

According to function, there are five types of sentences. These are –

Assertive sentence: Assertive sentence is a type of sentence that express only simple statements. It has two types – affirmative and negative

  1. Affirmative: The sentence that expresses positive statements. Example – I read the book. Here, this sentence says a positive aspect and state a general situation of the person.
  2. Negative: The sentence that expresses negative statements. Example – I do not read the book. Here the person does his work negatively. In other words, the person shows a negative approach.

Imperative sentence: An imperative sentence is a type of sentence that are used to give order, instructions, advice or command or to express a request. In imperative sentence, person is not visually present rather performs his or her job commanding, ordering, advising or ordering another person. In the imperative sentence, the subject is usually the second person, that is ‘you’ except the sentence begin with ‘let’s’.

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Example – Shut the door, open the book, please help me etc. Here, somebody commands to shut the door, instructs to open the book and requests to help him. And there is no visible subject. The sentence indicates you shut the door. Imperatively it is said, shut the door.

Interrogative sentence: An interrogative sentence is a type of sentence used to ask a question and always ends with an interrogative sign or question mark (?). An interrogative sentence is noticed typically by turnover of the subject and predicate. In this type of sentence, there must be an auxiliary verb also called as helping verb. And the auxiliary verb affects the state of the main verb. The auxiliary verb always places before the subject.

Example – When did you sleep? Here, this sentence asks a question and ends with an interrogative sign. The auxiliary verb in this sentence is ‘did, present before the subject ‘you’. ‘Did’ also alters the state of the main verb ‘slept’ to ‘sleep’ as it was a past form of the verb.

Optative sentence: Optative sentence is a type of sentence that denoting or relating to a desire or wish. It is an expression of hope or desire. Note that this type of sentences is ends with an exclamatory sign like the exclamatory sentence.

Example – If I were a bird! Here, the subject wishes to be a bird. And the sentence ends with an exclamatory sign.

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Exclamatory sentence: An exclamatory sentence is a form of a declarative or assertive sentence having a strong emotion, feelings like anger, fear, anxiety, surprise, sadness etc. These sentences end having an exclamation sign/mark (!). Exclamatory sentence generally begins with what or how. If your subject is plural, you should use ‘what’ not ‘how’.

Example – How beautiful the bird is! Here, it is a happy expression of the subject, Remember, exclamation always used to express strong inner feelings.

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