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How to Learn English

What is English Grammar?

English grammar is said to be the way by which meanings are encoded into words in English language. The contents are discussed in grammar are words, clauses, sentences, and phrases up to the structure of the texts. There are different variations of English like social, regional, cultural and historical.

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Basic components of English grammar:

Word

Sentence

Tense

Parts of speech – Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection.

Clause

Article

Degree

Person

Number

Gender

Word:

‘Word’ consists of one or more speaking sound of human or written representation of the sounds, and have a definite meaning. These are smallest formed elements of sentence. These are also called the basic unit of a language.

Example – ‘bird’ is a word. It has a definite meaning.

But ‘dirb’ has no meaning. So we cannot say it is a word.

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Sentence:

A sentence is made of a group of words that express a complete sense. It contains a main verb and always begins with capital letter. Sentences are commonly used to:

  • Make a statement like – I have bought a new dress.
  • Ask a question or request like – Can I help you? Or, Could you open the door, please?
  • Give command like – Come here at once!
  • Express exclamation like – It’s so cold! It’s too charming!

Which one is not Sentence?

The group of words which do not express a complete sense or meaning or not valid is not a sentence. Some examples are – work for, too much information, all not Monday etc.

These are not able to complete a sense or expression and have no actual meaning. So we cannot say them sentences.

Types of sentences:

According to function there are five types of sentences. These are –

Assertive sentence: Assertive sentence is a type of sentence that express only simple statements. It has two types – affirmative and negative

  1. Affirmative: The sentence that express positive statements. Example – I read the book. Here, this sentence says a positive aspect and state a general situation of the person.
  2. Negative: The sentence that express negative statements. Example – I do not read the book. Here the person does his work negatively. In other word, the person show negative approach.

Imperative sentence: Imperative sentence is a type of sentence that are used to give order, instructions, advice or command or to express a request. In imperative sentence, person is not visually present rather performs his or her job commanding, ordering, advising or ordering another person. In imperative sentence, subject is usually second person, that is ‘you’ except the sentence begin with ‘let’s’.

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Example – Shut the door, open the book, please help me etc. Here, somebody commands to shut the door, instructs to open the book and requests to help him. And there is no visible subject. The sentence indicates, you shut the door. Imperatively it is said, shut the door.

Interrogative sentence: An interrogative sentence is a type of sentence used to ask a question and always ends with an interrogative sign or question mark (?).Interrogative sentence is noticed typically by turnover of the subject and predicate. In this type of sentence, there must be an auxiliary verb also called as helping verb. And the auxiliary verb affects the state of main verb. The auxiliary verb always place before the subject.

Example – When did you sleep? Here, this sentence asks a question and ends with interrogative sign. The auxiliary verb in this sentence is ‘did, present before the subject ‘you’. ‘Did’ also alters the state of main verb ‘slept’ to ‘sleep’ as it was a past form of verb.

Optative sentence: Optative sentence is a type of sentence that denoting or relating to a desire or wish. It is an expression of hope or desire. Note that this type of sentences are ends with exclamatory sign like exclamatory sentence.

Example – If I were a bird! Here, the subject wishes to be a bird. And the sentence ends with an exclamatory sign.

Exclamatory sentence: An exclamatory sentence is a form of declarative or assertive sentence having strong emotion, feelings like anger, fear, anxiety, surprise, sadness etc. These sentences ends having an exclamation sign/mark (!). Exclamatory sentence generally begins with what or how. If your subject is plural, you should use ‘what’ not ‘how’.

Example – How beautiful the bird is! Here, it is a happy expression of the subject, Remember, exclamation always used to express strong inner feelings.

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